FENCING. DESCRIPTION, RULES, HISTORY
Fencing is a sport that combines three disciplines: rapier, sword, saber.
Competitions in men are held in three types of weapons – rapier, saber, sword, in women – rapier and sword. Touching the opponent’s surface with a weapon is determined by the judge and with the help of an electrofixer.
Sports rapier with a total length of up to 110 cm and weighing up to 500 g, the hand is protected by a round guard with a diameter of 12 cm.
A sports saber up to 105 cm long, weighing up to 500 g, a steel elastic blade of a trapezoidal variable section with a guard protecting the hand.
Sports epee with a total length of not more than 110 cm and weighing up to 770 g, a stabbing weapon with a flexible steel blade of a trihedral cross-section, the wrist is protected by a guard with a diameter of 13.5 cm.
In rapier fights, injections are allowed only in the body, on swords – in all parts of the body, except for the neck mask, on sabers – injections (or punches) in all parts of the body above the waist. Fights are held on the fencing track with a length of 14 m and a width of 1.8 – 2 m.
Athletes perform in light protective jackets covered with a metallic fabric (rapier, saber), masks with a metal mesh and a glove on an armed hand.
In addition, fencing is usually divided into types:
1. Combat fencing is the art of owning various types of hand cold steel. So to say, the practical part of preparing a real warrior for a real battle;
2. Sports fencing is, as the name implies, a sport in which European and world championships are held today. Also, sports fencing is included in the program of the Olympic Games;
3. Artistic fencing is a type of sports fencing. The main goal of athletes is to present, both spectators and judges, a believable duel using real cold steel;
4. Historical fencing is based on the use of ancient techniques and tactics of warfare. Also, athletes participating in the historical fencing duel, put on old equipment, costumes and take copies of weapons of skilled craftsmen of the past;
5. Stage fencing – this type of fencing is aimed at spectacular demonstration of how you can use hand cold steel. Stage fencing is a discipline in many theater schools.
Fencing originated in Spain in the 15th century. It was there that it gained the greatest popularity. In 1567, King Charles IX established the Fencing Academy. If we turn to the cultural side of the issue, it is hard to miss such a nuance as the motto of fencing. It was formed back in 1650, when Moliere said the following words: “Fencing is the art of striking without getting them.”
After a while, in addition to Spain, other countries began to participate in the life and development of fencing. So, for example, in 1765, the French suggested using special fencing masks in battle to increase the safety of this sport.
The first Olympic Games, which, as you know, were held in Athens, included this sport in their program. Therefore, do not be surprised that fencing has become so popular all over the world.
In 1913, the International Fencing Federation was created, which began to approve the general rules and activities related to the popularization of this sport. Beginning in 1906, fencing began to hold European championships, and since 1937 – world championships.
As for the rules, in fact, their main part was formed in the Middle Ages. Today, however, as before, the main goal of each athlete (fencer) is to inflict a cold weapon injection on his opponent, and, of course, try to avoid this injection himself. The winner is the one who inflicts more shots on his enemy.
As in other sports, fencing is managed and evaluated by a sports judge. The apparatus, which was mentioned a little above, with the help of lamps registers injections inflicted by fighters. How does this happen? Everything is extremely simple: electrical circuits are both in clothes and in the weapons of fencers. So these schemes are connected with the apparatus, which registers injections.
The FIE International Fencing Federation was formed in 1913 and unites about 100 national federations.