PLANNING TRAINING IN FENCING
Training of fencers consists of a set of activities aimed at mastering the technique and tactics of fencing to achieve maximum sporting results in it. At the same time, the training has the task of general improvement, comprehensive physical education and education in order to prepare for labor and defense activities. When constructing a training session, it is necessary to take into account the nature of the work of those involved, their working conditions, diet, etc.
Training, therefore, has the goal of: 1) Improving the activity of the organs of blood circulation, respiration, metabolism, excretion, etc., and preparing the body for the most economical expenditure of energy with various psychophysical stresses. 2) Improvement of the qualities of the neuromuscular and musculoskeletal systems (strength and elasticity of muscles, mobility), speed of motor reaction and general coordination of movements. 3) Mastering the technical skills of knives. 4) Creation and improvement of tactical skills of fencing combat. 5) Mastery of military-applied motor skills. 6) Improvement of moral-volitional qualities (initiative, decisiveness, quick wit, self-control, etc.). 7) Education of the Qualities and habits of cultural behavior: discipline, endurance, collectivism and responsibility in work, strict adherence to the regime and rules of hygienic behavior, etc.
Education, being an integral part of an inextricable training process, is dominant only in the classroom of beginners. In relation to more trained fighters, it is mainly a question of consolidating and improving skills, which is achieved by training.
The training tasks can be fully realized only on the basis of combining fencing with gymnastics and using various methodological and organizational forms of conducting classes (group and individual lessons, independent work of students individually and in pairs, training competitions, combat practice). Properly organized educational work should not be a random, temporary event, due only to the need for preparation for the competition, but methodically from year to year carried out by the physical-educational process.
A typical training plan should cover the time of one sports year. Repeating the next year, the plan should not change fundamentally, but be built on the basis of higher technical and tactical training. In practice, however, the training of the fencer (with the usual distribution of competitions for the winter and spring periods) in each sports year involves two training cycles: autumn-winter and spring, each lasting from 3 to 3.5 months, with a little rest between them. Each cycle, in turn, is divided into preparatory and main periods with the inclusion in the last competition finishing the training. The spring cycle also ends with a transition period.
In the preparatory period, the tasks of general physiological and technical preparation are solved predominantly. In the main period – general combat, tactical and physiological training, in the transition period – the way out of the state of special training and the transition to rest.
Under the condition of a total cycle duration of 3–3.5 months. training is normally planned as follows:
a) for fighters of the II and III category: 1) the preparatory period 1.5 – 2.5 months, 2) the main period – 1-2 months,
b) for masters and fighters of the I category: 1) the preparatory period is 1 month, 2) the main period is 2.5 months.
Reducing the training time is done by compressing the preparatory period (especially for masters and fighters of the I category). The frequency and duration of training sessions depends on the total workload of the trainees and ranges from 2 to 3 times per six days with a duration of 1 to 3 hours. (morning gymnastics, self-study walks are not taken into account). The load of the trainer is determined on the basis of the average duration of an individual lesson – from 10 to 20 minutes, an average of 10 people with a two-hour lesson. The more qualified the group of fighters, the smaller the number of them should fall on one leader and the more self-training outside classes and independent work in the process of training should be individualized.